Fig. 5. The predicted fraction of occupied patches as a function of the average traffic volume on all roads for different sizes of traffic-calmed area. The size of the traffic-calmed area is represented by a scaling factor S (see text for explanation). The total number of patches is 25, with one per grid cell in a given road network. The average traffic volume is constant, λ, but there is a clear separation between roads with an access function, λa, and roads with a flow function, λf. The traffic volume on the calmed roads is (a) 0.1 of the original volume (γ = 0.1), (b) 0.5 of the original volume (γ = 0.5). Parameter values (see Appendix 1 for definitions): α = 1, δ = 0.3, wc = 2, lc = 5, vc = 20, la = 1.4, va = 5.2, wa = 0.4 (roe deer as model species), and K = 5. Dimensions of region: L = 2, a = 0.15, M = 4, region is 10 km².