Fig. 4. Traffic volume of roads surrounding traffic-calmed areas compared to the size of habitat patches for which the predicted fraction of occupied patches is zero. For parameter combinations below the line (shaded area), the fraction of occupied patches is greater than zero and the population is persistent. Parameter values: α = 1, δ = 0.3, wc = 2, lc = 5, vc = 20, la = 1.4, va = 5.2, wa = 0.4 (roe deer as model species), and K = 5. Dimensions of region: L = 2, M = 4, region is 10 km².