Fig. 4. Education, civic ecology practice, and social–ecological system resilience. Series of figures showing how an educational program embedded within civic ecology practice, along with the civic ecology practice itself, can confer social–ecological system resilience. (a) A traditional view of education emphasizes its role in producing greater understanding of a predetermined body of knowledge. (b) Civic ecology practice enhances natural capital (e.g., through planting trees), which in turn produces ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, recreation). By community members working together to restore degraded sites, civic ecology practice also fosters social capital. Feedback loops exist between natural and social capital, as when more trees in a community provide sites for people to gather and socialize, and people who are connected socially plant more trees. Such practices occur within a larger social–ecological system and have implications for the resilience of that system. (c) What happens if instead of education being a stand alone system, it becomes embedded within a civic ecology practice? (d) Together, the educational program and the civic ecology practice foster human, natural, and social capital. Furthermore, additional feedback loops are generated among human, natural, and social capital. Human capital, now conceived of as adaptive learning, contributes directly to natural capital (as when youth learn more effective methods for planting trees), and natural capital contributes to human capital (e.g., by providing opportunities for learning about nature). Similarly, social capital can provide opportunities to build human capital (as when adults who are working together incorporate younger people in their civic ecology practice), and youth learning from the adult civic ecologists can build not only human capital but also social capital among the youth and adults. (Not shown in (d) relationship between natural and social capital depicted in (c) also persists.) (e) Civic ecology practice provides a setting for educational programs. An educational program situated in a civic ecology practice produces human capital by helping young people acquire skills and become adaptive learners. Such human capital enables young people to contribute to the civic ecology practice, forming a reinforcing feedback loop. The civic ecology practice, together with the education program, foster attributes of resilient systems, and thus become a source of social–ecological system resilience.(Diagram draws from work of from Folke et al. 2002, Walker and Salt 2006, and Krasny and Tidball 2009).