Fig. 3. Ecological service learning to foster resilience: feedback loops depicting the relationships among ecological service learning and social and ecosystem resilience. Starting on the right with the smaller feedback loop (A), ecological or environmental service learning fosters social system health and resilience; more service learning leads to more social system health and resilience, which in turn leads to more ecological service learning and so on. The larger feedback loop (B) shows how ecological service learning or civic ecology practice (e.g., community tree planting) enhances the urban forest, which in turn maintains ecosystem services. These ecosystem services contribute to and enhance social system health and resilience, which may spawn additional civic ecology practice and ecological service learning. (Diagram draws from work of Kuo et al. 1998, Miles et al. 1998, Kuo and Sullivan 2001, Wells and Evans 2003, Wells and Lekies 2006, and Resilience Alliance 2008).