APPENDIX 2. Conceptualizations of streams emerging from the interviews.




"(...) the environment is healthier [by the stream], I mean, the shadow, the trees itself (...)"

"(...) If you buy a property, buy it by the river, with no pollution, it's better. We are better in the freshness of Poplars. You may have more mosquitoes, but well. (...)"

"(...) This stream has very little significance because most of the year it's dry. (...) because of shrubs and those things we cleaned it and continue cleaning in order to have the waterway in good condition right? (...)

"(...) This isn´t even a stream, it's a creek. (...) the creek cannot disappear because the water has to go to some place. (...)"

"(...) [about the advantages of having the stream by the property] Water, sometimes I use it for irrigation for meadows. And shading. (...) For the animals and for us [the shading], because it refreshes a little bit the area which is very hot. I live there, I'm not really a farmer, and it´s pretty (...)"

"(...) when there is a lot of water you also have it in the stream. (...) But to be a farmer it would be easier not to have the stream. (...)I think it is pretty [the riparian gallery] but it is also possible to plant it elsewhere, to substitute the trees that were there (...) When it is possible to clean and create a situation where people can see the water, yes [the riparian gallery brings benefits]. But this way, all dense, with trees, they don´t usufruct. (...)"

“(...) they could be cleaner, but then too much cleaning also brings other problems. On that issue, let nature work. Here you have, look, I leave these willows. (...) I have a lot of trees there that... That poplar is not there by chance. There are already other smaller ones and I let them, exactly because this is so hot, in order to have a refreshing system. But I think that everything that is trees, whatever type they are... even willows, that are terrible, I protect them when little. (...) Now the bushes... There the stream is less... You should take out the bushes, just to make sure it doesn´t stay in the way [of the water] when it's flooding, apart from that no one interferes with the stream. Just let nature work. (...) But streams on the other side, you shouldn´t clean them too much because then the water itself digs and ruins the forest the stream has (...)"

"(...) Because the waters... It receives the waters, right? (...) Maybe it is convenient for us (...) Well yes, there were some people planting poplars, ashes, things like that, right? (...) I think it is good to have it cleaned so the water runs when it rains. (...)"

"(...) [about the excess of boars in the property] because a ditch full of blackberry all over results in that. (...) [if it would be better to take out the blackberry] Yes! At least the animals’ wouldn´t come... (...) We have small sheep here. (...)"

"(...) And I love the stream for its vegetation. The stream never dries out. And for the quantity of wildlife existing in the stream. (...) [about the benefit of the stream] have green vegetation the whole year (...) I usually say that here I'm not in Alentejo, but instead on paradise. I have so much vegetation around. Although I like Alentejo very much, I usually say I'm on paradise because of the stream."

“(...) If it wasn´t the stream, the water would get out of the stream (...) [about the reasons why a property has more value if it has a stream] Because of creeks, because of the water the property has, because of the land, for everything. The creeks are here because they are needed. And if they are! One more proof that the land is good. Because it has to be drained, you see? Otherwise it gets too wet. But if it gets too wet it's also because it can handle more humidity. (...)"

"(...) the stream there doesn´t have enough shadow. (...) if the small stream would run the whole year that would be a paradise (...)"

"(...) it's an area where we feel better the importance of water than in other areas (...) it's an area that has special characteristics and is greener than any other area, even the type of vegetation. It's not only the cork oak or the holm oak; instead there are a funny variety of trees. It's an area, I would say, semi-wet. So it is very rich in terms of quality and variety of pastures and very rich at the tree level. (...) S. Cristóvão Stream to me has a landscape and environmental value and everything... to me is one of the most beautiful areas in this region here. An area greener, more beautiful, richer. (...) you can find Ashes, Poplars, Alders, etc... (...)"

"(...) [about a small stream that rarely has water] So it's like I'm telling you. This is water from the mountain passing here, on the other side of the mountain it passes there. I know it does. So, streams we can count as streams it’s only the Alcáçovas stream [further downstream], there you have it... [meaning only there it has enough size to call it a stream, and not before]"

"(...) The stream here is for drainage, nothing else. (...) It is small, doesn´t have... It's... basically... Here we call it a creek, we don´t call it stream... Stream is where this one will empty into (...) It doesn´t even have habitats, no bushes, nothing... no edges with bushes where other types of fauna could live in. It is dry in the summer, completely dry, too. (...) I don´t think this is a stream like you understand it, right? (...) because here you don´t have a stream with dimension, with habitat natural of certain species and stuff. Here there are no issues, because it is about small creeks, drainage ditches. Only that, nothing more. (...)"
"(...) at least it is a water current there [the stream] (...)"

"(...) The flow reduces [in the dry periods], but it always runs. But very good, very good. It has several springs along the waterway. (...)"

"(...) it always has water there (...)"

"(...) [about the benefits of the stream] to drain water (...) That stream there... Stream...: it is a creek! (...)"

"(...) everybody likes to have creeks in their properties (...) if the creek is there it's because there is plenty of water. (...) The shadow, that's no longer from the stream, it's from the ashes. (..)"

"(...) There was no vegetation there. Not even cork oaks... They may have taken it out (...)"

"(...) you can´t call this a stream. That is not a stream; it's a creek, a sort of ditch that exists there (...)"

"(...) It's just blackberry all over. (...) If the summer is very, very hot, it almost dries out. (...) And in the winter it gets out of the water way. (...) The stream is small. (...)"

"(...) The stream is all good. (...) But it needs to be clean. (...) of bushes. The water quality is good (...) In any property the stream is the defense of the property, it's a water [existing there]. (...)"

"(...) The trees let them stay. (...) No, the trees are all good (...). It's the poplar. The cork oak. The holm oak. There are a lot of those trees by the stream. That you cannot destroy, it is no prejudice. The poplar, the ash... The ash, the alder and the poplar. (...)"

"(...) Both animals and people like water, like rivers. Specially being a cleaned stream (...) Our stream is not cleaned, its shrubs everywhere, garbage... (...)”

"(...) This is mostly bay laurels and ashes [around the stream]. The elms are all gone. And plane trees, and also plane trees. (...) It's a microclimate. This in the old times, with those huge trees, this was even better then. (...)"

"(...) But that one there [stream]...It's just blackberry all over, willows, all the rubbish there is (...)"

"(...) Everything is cleaned, only trees are there now. And now it's even those trees that protect the rest, blackberry is gone. All gone. It just stays what gives beauty to the stream, which are trees that were planted. Alders, ashes, sessile oaks and all those things. I planted. (...)"