Fig. 5. Simulated global surface temperature changes as a result of converting the tropical forest basins of the Amazon, Africa, and the Indian archipelago from rainforest to bare ground. In this simulation, changes in the tropical forest vegetation cover of the Amazon cause widespread temperature changes in the region, but also significant tele-connections to other parts of the world, including western Europe and central Asia. This simulation was performed by the CCM3 climate model, coupled to the IBIS land surface / ecosystem model (Snyder et al. 2004a,b).