Table 2. Spearman rank correlation between socioeconomic indicators and the percentage of human population in neighborhoods with below-average neighborhood bird diversity at the municipal district level.

Socioeconomic parameter Correlation (rho)
Population density (inhabitants/km², 1994) 0.44**
Average household size (1994) −0.03
Mean age (1994) −0.02
Companies (number/km², 1994) 0.47***
Residential vacancy (1995) 0
Unemployment (% of employable population, 1996) 0.25*
Share of households with income < 1000 € (2003) 0.36*
Share of population with income > 3000 € (2003) −0.31*

°p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.