Table 2. Metabolic profiles of the agrarian and industrial socioecological regimes.

Agrarian regime Industrial regime LD* DC** EU**
15
UK
1750†
UK
1830†
UK
2000†
Population density [cap/km²] 30–40 100–300 40 76 116 30 76 247
Energy use per capita [GJ/cap/yr] 50–70 150–400 33 64 205 63 68 189
Energy use per unit area [GJ/ha/yr] 20–30 200–600 13 49 216 19 52 468
Biomass [%] 95–100 10–30 92 50 23 94 54 12
Fossil fuels [%] 0–5 60–80 8 50 77 6 46 78
Other [%] 0–5 0–20 10
Material use per capita [t/cap/yr] 2–5 15–25 4.2 6.8 16 5.7 6.4 11.6
Material use per unit area [t/ha/yr] 1–2 20–50 1.3 4.8 18 1.7 4.9 28.7

Source: Fischer-Kowalski et al. 2007:231.
* LD = least-developed countries.
** DC = developing countries (according to UN definitions).
** EU 15 = 15 member countries of the European Union.
† Year
‡ included in numbers for fossil fuels.