Table 3. List of parameters, meanings, and numerical ranges used to simulate the temperature-dependent delay differential equation West Nile model. All of the rate parameters are measured in units 1/time.

Parameter Meaning Numerical Range used in Simulation
Vector
bV Percent gain of mosquitoes due to births 0.02–0.07
(Walter and Hacker 1974, Suleman and Reisen 1979, Oda et al. 1999)
dV Percent loss due to natural mosquito deaths 0.02–0.07
(Walter and Hacker 1974, Suleman and Reisen 1979, Oda et al. 1999)
ρV Fraction of births that retains infection 0.000–0.002
(Turell et al. 2001, Dohm et al. 2002, Goddard et al. 2003, Bugbee and Forte 2004)
αV Probability of virus transmission to vector 0.23–1.00
(Work et al. 1955, Turell et al. 2000, Sardelis and Turell 2001, Turell et al. 2001, Goddard et al. 2003, Tiawsirisup et al. 2004, Colton et al. 2005, Tiawsirisup et al. 2005)
νV Probability of loss of infectivity 0.05
(Vanlandingham et al. 2004)
κV Virus incubation rate 0.09–0.12
(Sardelis and Turell 2001)
Reservoirs
αR Probability of virus transmission to reservoir 0.27–1.00
(Turell et al. 2000, Turell et al. 2001, Goddard et al. 2002, Tiawsirisup et al. 2004, Vanlandingham et al. 2004, Colton et al. 2005, Tiawsirisup et al. 2005)
βR Biting rate 0.34–0.53
(Griffith and Turner 1996)
dR Percent loss of birds due to natural deaths 0.001–0.002
(Milby and Wright 1976, Dyer et al. 1977, Hickey and Brittingham 1991)
δR Percent loss of birds due to virus 0.0001
(Wonham et al. 2006)
γR Recovery rate to immunity 0.5
(Wonham et al. 2006)
νR Loss of immunity rate 0
(Wonham et al. 2006)
τ Length of virus incubation in vector in weeks 0–2
(Day 2001)