Table 1. Representative examples of studies combining traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and scientific knowledge. The summary describes whether TEK provided a smaller/larger or shorter/longer scale of spatial and temporal information compared to available scientific knowledge.

Research subject Study location Spatial scale Temporal scale References
Winter ecology and habitat use of Common eider (Somateria mollissima sedentaria) Belcher Islands, Canada Smaller geographical area Longer time series Gilchrist et al. (2005)
Gilchrist et al. (2006)
Biodiversity conservation in populations of Brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) Mistassini Lake, Canada Smaller geographical area Longer time series Fraser et al. (2006)
Ecology, behavior, harvest trends, and causes of population decline of sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) Rakiura, Poutama, and Titi Islands,
New Zealand
Smaller geographical area Longer time series Lyver (2002)
Identification of essential fish habitats for several groundfish species Irish Sea, UK Smaller geographical area ... Bergmann et al. (2004)
Flooding, ecology, and environmental management history of a wetland targeted for rehabilitation Kanyapella Basin, Australia Smaller geographical area Longer time series Robertson and McGhee (2003)
Movement and population decline of white-winged and surf scoters (Melanitta fusca and M. perspicillata) Alaska, USA, and
Northwest Territories, Canada
Smaller geographical area ... Huntington et al. (2004)
Historical changes in distribution and abundance of a population of arctic tundra caribou (Rangifer tarandus) South Baffin Island, Canada Larger geographical area Longer time series Ferguson and Messier (1998)
Conservation of bumphead parrotfish
(Bolbometopon muricatum)
West Solomon Islands Smaller geographical area Longer time series Aswani and Hamilton (2004)
Trends in harvest, behavior, and migrating movements of Atlantic cod and lumpfish (Gadus morhua and Cyclopterus lumpus) Newfoundland, Canada Smaller geographical area Longer time series Neis et al. (1999)
Ecology of arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus)and greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) North Baffin Island, Canada Larger geographical area Longer time series This study