Table 1. This table presents the dyads of elements in the ecosystem model. Circle symbols (●) indicate relationships that do not co-occur in any section of law (institutional gaps). For example, there is no section of law in the collection containing both the terms “crab” and “eelgrass,” which is a link in the ecosystem model.

Interaction Type

Interaction

Number of documents in which
ecosystem dyads co-occur
(by geopolitical jurisdiction)
USA WA OR CA
Ecological–ecological interactions Species interactions Crab–eelgrass
Crab–Spartina 1 1
Seabird–eelgrass 1 1
Seabird–spartina
Eelgrass–salmon 2
Eelgrass–Spartina
Species–habitat interactions Crab–ocean 11 10 33 8
Crab–estuary 2 4 6 2
Seabird–ocean 3 1 1
Seabird–estuary 1 1
Eelgrass–ocean 2 1
Eelgrass–estuary 3 2
Salmon–ocean 21 31 66 35
Salmon–estuary 8 14 10 8
Spartina–estuary 1 1
Habitat interaction Ocean–estuary 50 18 31 38
 
Interactions between social and ecological aspects Species–human stressors interactions Crab–dredge 3 1 1
Crab–pesticide 1
Crab–climate change
Seabird–dredge 4 1
Seabird–pesticide 1
Seabird–climate change
Eelgrass–dredge 7 1
Eelgrass–pesticide
Eelgrass–sewage 2
Eelgrass–climate change
Salmon–dredge 5 4 2 2
Salmon–climate change
Spartina–pesticide 3
Spartina–climate change
Habitat–human stressor interactions Ocean–climate change 1
Estuary–dredge 17 17 7 12
Estuary–pesticide 5 2 4
Estuary–sewage 24 5 2 4
Estuary–climate change