Table 4. Threshold values for individual mitigation measures that are estimated to reduce collisions with large ungulates by ≥80% (see Table 1 for estimated percentages).

Threshold values Discount rate Fence Fence, underpass, jump-outs Fence, under- and overpass, jump-outs ADS Fence, gap, ADS, jump-outs Elevated roadway Road tunnel
US$/km/yr 1% $5223 $12 437 $15 975 $35 279 $25 634 $2 233 094 $3 328 567
US$/km/yr 3% $6304 $18 123 $24 230 $37 014 $28 150 $3 109 422 $4 981 333
US$/km/yr 7% $8931 $32 457 $45 142 $41 526 $34 437 $5 369 961 $9 246 617
deer/km/yr 1% 0.9 2.2 2.8 6.1 4.5 337.5 503.0
deer/km/yr 3% 1.1 3.2 4.3 6.4 4.9 470.0 752.8
deer/km/yr 7% 1.6 5.7 7.9 7.2 6.0 811.6 1397.4
elk/km/yr 1% 0.4 0.8 1.1 2.3 1.7 127.7 190.4
elk/km/yr 3% 0.4 1.2 1.6 2.4 1.9 177.9 284.9
elk/km/yr 7% 0.6 2.2 3.0 2.7 2.3 307.2 528.9
moose/km/yr 1% 0.2 0.5 0.6 1.3 1.0 72.6 108.2
moose/km/yr 3% 0.2 0.7 0.9 1.4 1.1 101.1 161.9
moose/km/yr 7% 0.3 1.2 1.7 1.6 1.3 174.6 300.6