Table 3. Threshold values for individual mitigation measures that are estimated to reduce collisions with large ungulates by ≤50% (see Table 1 for estimated percentages).


Threshold values Discount rate Seasonal sign Vegetation removal Fence, gap, signs, crosswalk, jump-outs Population culling Relocation Anti-fertility treatment
US$/km/yr 1% $114 $530 $8153 $3040 $12 652 $71 110
US$/km/yr 3% $121 $530 $10 116 $3099 $12 764 $71 110
US$/km/yr 7% $140 $530 $14 972 $3215 $13 164 $71 110
deer/km/yr 1% <0.1 0.2 3.1 0.9 3.8 21.5
deer/km/yr 3% <0.1 0.2 3.8 0.9 3.9 21.5
deer/km/yr 7% <0.1 0.2 5.7 1.0 4.0 21.5
elk/km/yr 1% <0.1 <0.1 1.2 0.4 1.5 8.1
elk/km/yr 3% <0.1 <0.1 1.5 0.4 1.5 8.1
elk/km/yr 7% <0.1 <0.1 2.1 0.4 1.5 8.1
moose/km/yr 1% <0.1 <0.1 0.7 0.2 0.8 4.6
moose/km/yr 3% <0.1 <0.1 0.8 0.2 0.8 4.6
moose/km/yr 7% <0.1 <0.1 1.2 0.2 0.9 4.6