Table 1. The estimated effectiveness, present value costs (in 2007 US$, 3% discount rate), and costs per percent reduction of mitigation measures aimed at reducing collisions with large ungulates over a 75-year time period. The measures are ordered based on their estimated effectiveness. If a measure is estimated to be 86% effective, it means that ungulate–vehicle collisions are estimated to reduce by 86% as a result of the implementation of that mitigation measure (e.g., a reduction from 100 collisions to 14 collisions).


Mitigation
measure
Effectiveness Crossing opportunity?   Source Present value costs (US$) Costs per percent reduction (US$)
Seasonal wildlife warning sign 26% Yes Sullivan et al. (2004): 51%; Rogers (2004): 0% $3728 $143
Vegetation removal 38% Yes Jaren et al. (1991): 56%; Lavsund and Sandegren (1991): 20% $16 272 $428
Fence, gap, crosswalk 40% Yes Lehnert and Bissonette (1997): 42%, 37% $300 468 $7512
Population culling 50% Yes Review in Huijser et al. (2007a) $94 809 $1896
Relocation 50% Yes Review in Huijser et al. (2007a) $391 870 $7837
Anti-fertility treatment 50% Yes Review in Huijser et al. (2007a) $2 183 207 $43 664
Fence (incl. dig barrier) 86%

No

Reed et al. (1982) 79%; Ward (1982): 90% Woods (1990): 94%–97%; Clevenger et al. (2001): 80%; Dodd et al. (2007): 87%

$187 246

$2177
Fence, underpass, jump-out 86%

Yes

Reed et al. (1982) 79%; Ward (1982): 90% Woods (1990): 94%–97%; Clevenger et al. (2001): 80%; Dodd et al. (2007): 87%

$538 273

$6259
Fence, under- and overpass,
jump-out
86%

Yes

Reed et al. (1982) 79%; Ward (1982): 90% Woods (1990): 94%–97%; Clevenger et al. (2001): 80%; Dodd et al. (2007): 87%

$719 667

$8368
Animal detection system (ADS) 87%

Yes

Mosler-Berger and Romer (2003): 82%; Dodd and Gagnon (2008): 91% $1 099 370 $12 636
Fence, gap, ADS 87%

Yes

Mosler-Berger and Romer (2003): 82%; Dodd and Gagnon (2008): 91% $836 113 $9610
Elevated roadway 100% Yes Review in Huijser et al. (2007a) $92 355 498 $923 555
Road tunnel 100% Yes Review in Huijser et al. (2007a) $147 954 696 $1 479 547