Fig. 8. The costs (in 2007 US$) associated with wildlife–vehicle collisions (deer and elk) along the two-lane MT Hwy 83 (mile reference posts 0.0–47.8) per year (average 1998–2003), and the threshold values (at 3% discount rate) that need to be met in order to have the benefits of individual mitigation measures exceed the costs over a 75-year time period. Note that the costs at each 0.1 mile concerned and five adjacent 0.1 mile units were summed (0.6 mile = 1 km) to estimate the costs per kilometer.