Table 3. Explaining variation in institutionalization and perception of certification schemes

Finland/PEFC Russia/FSC Sweden/FSC&PEFC
Impact of forest industry structure on institutionalization of certificationa

Large proportion of small-scale forest owners supporting PEFC Major holdings supporting FSC Mix of large- and small-scale forest owners resulting in mixed FSC/PEFC system
Impact on local level of certification PEFC resulting in relatively minor perceived impact Major impact of FSC with focus on social and environmental criteria (implementing state legislation) Impact of FSC with focus on indigenous issues, but limited decisive capacities
a Impact of the other factors studied (NGOs, supply-chain pressures, and governmental support) was strong in all areas.