†Locations within city limits were considered nonrural; outside of city limits, rural.
‡A length of residency of more than 7 yr was considered established; less than 7 yr, new, as per self-identification by participants. In reality, length of residency is a continuum, but is often operationalized as a dichotomous variable in the social science literature (see Smith and Krannich 2000).
§Participants self-identified as having either a low or high level of community involvement. Participants who identified as having low involvement were on average affiliated with 0–2 community groups, whereas participants who considered themselves to be highly involved averaged 4–6 community group affiliations.
|Participants who considered themselves to have low political involvement were not affiliated with any local or regional political entities and did not attend regular political meetings. Participants with high political involvement attended regular community meetings and/or held political office.