Fig. 1. The specific study sites and countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (in black outline) for which literature (L) was available for this synthesis. The specific sites are (1) Tororo district in eastern Uganda, (2) Machakos district in eastern Kenya, (3) Kasungu, (4) Mchinji, (4) Dedza, (5) Ntcheu, (6) Balaka, and (7) Zomba districts in Malawi, (8) Angonia and (9) Tsangano districts in northwest Mozambique, (10) Chipata and (11) Katete in eastern Zambia, (12) Mazabuka and Monze, (13) Gwembe and Choma, and (14) Kalomo and Livingstone districts in southern Zambia. The study sites were superimposed on the aridity map of Africa (UNEP/GRID-Arendal 2002).