Fig. 2. Position of science and policy in four types of environmental issues and policy strategies to move from an unstructured to a more structured issue: pacification vs. facilitation (modified from Hisschemöller et al. 2001, see also Pielke (2007). Before reducing uncertainties by the research (horizontal arrow), consensus must be reached regarding ambitions, directions for solutions, and an interpretation framework, for example, on the accepted level of uncertainty (vertical arrow).