Table 3. Percentage of respondents at each site who mentioned specific factors that could affect the number of fish in the sea. Causal mechanisms explain how respondents believed the factor that they mentioned affects fish abundance. Respondents could mention more than one category, so the columns will not necessarily add up to 100%.


Response category Cap Masoala Sahamalaza Tanjona Nosy Atafana Tampolo All sites
Human agency 47 72 63 44 52 57
Fisheries 45 72 63 44 52 57
     Number of fishers 31 62 48 23 31 41
     Fishers from outside 4 12 6 0 12 7
     Nets 14 6 23 23 7 14
     Other gear 8 3 2 2 5 4
     Social/cultural factors 4 2 4 0 0 2
Stochastic events, e.g., climate change, political conditions 6 2 4 0 0 2
Supernatural causes, e.g., gods, ancestors 0 2 0 14 2 3
Causal mechanisms 24 12 25 40 29 25
     Habitat 18 6 15 9 2 10
     Reproduction 16 2 4 7 7 7
     Life-history stages 2 2 2 16 19 7
     Fish mortality 0 2 4 7 7 4
     Fish behavior,
       e.g., moved, hiding
4 3 6 14 2 6
Don’t know 33 14 23 16 33 23