Table 1. Summary, brief description, and methods used to examine indicators of flexibility, capacity to organize, capacity to learn, and assets. KI = key informant interview, HS = household survey, SI = secondary information, and PO = participant observation.

Measure
Description of indicators
Methods
Flexibility
     Dependence on natural resources Importance of fishing and other natural-resource-based occupations to household income and food security
KI, HS
     Livelihood diversity Number of different occupations per household
KI, HS
     Linkages and feedbacks between
       marine and terrestrial resource use
       sectors
Open-ended questions about how the 2005 fluctuation in the price of vanilla affected the respondent’s livelihood (Tanjona park only)
KI, HS
     Descriptions of formal and informal
       institutions used to govern resources
Open-ended questions about the rules, regulations, and degree of compliance with taboos (fady), marine parks, and other institutions that govern resources
KI, SI
Capacity to organize
     Involvement in community
       organizations
The number of community groups respondents were involved in
HS
     Participation in community
       decision making
Ordinal score representing how involved respondents were in community decision-making processes
HS
     Migration Whether respondents were born in the community or local region, i.e., within 75 km
HS
Capacity to learn
     Perceptions about humans as causal
       agents in marine ecosystems
Responses to open-ended questions such as “How can you affect the number of fish in the sea?” and “What can be done to increase the number of fish in the sea?”
HS
     Education Years of formal education
HS
     Monitoring of resources Qualitative descriptions about the presence of and feedback from ecological monitoring
KI, SI
Assets
     Material style of life Material style of life indicators, including type of walls, roof, and floor and number and type of appliances in a household
KI, HS, PO
     Infrastructure Presence of key community-level infrastructure such as a medical center, hard-top roads, a school, etc.
KI, HS, SI, PO