Fig. 8. Comparison of the proportional effect of noise on the frequency of birdsong and frog calls across five species (mean effect with 95% confidence/credible intervals). Species: Melospiza melodia (Wood and Yezerinac 2006), Carpodacus mexicanus (Fernández-Juricic et al. 2005), Parus major (Slabbekoorn and Peet 2003), and Litoria ewingii and Crinia signifera (this study).