Table 1. Description of the eight study villages located along the boundary of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR)

Village Name Distance from reserve
(km)
Population/
households/ surveyed households
Poor household Migrant labor Crop land
(ha)
School student Ginseng / mushroom
(ha/bag)
Hongfeng 8 634/168/68 32 59 73 1/57 1.5/15
Toudao 8 222/61/30 23 47 44 1/2 2.2/0
Xishan 10 240/68/32 25 45 47 0/8 12/8
Tiebei 2.5 1058/288/134 60 300 3 1/130 15/6
Baoma 0.5 1186/286/145 52 162 205 1/86 6/5.6
Naitou 4 225/72/32 34 68 104 0/30 0/0
Anbei 10 329/85/41 7 50 38 0/38 0/0
Changbai 11 616/176/82 7 120 140 1/58 0/0
TOTAL 4501/1204/564 226 851 654 4/313 36.7/34.6