Table 3. Restoration action and economic models. Possible restoration and preservation actions are identified in the first column. The landscape impact column describes how the action was implemented on the landscape in our modeling framework. A description of how each modeled action was translated into EDT input data is found in the Appendix. The economic model column describes the cost estimated for each action type. C = Project cost in $U.S. (C); W = Channel width (m).

Restoration or preservation action Economic model Modeled landscape impact
Culvert removal C = 178,430*ln(1.2W+0.61)-34,773 based on data from Evergreen Funding Consultants (2003) Upstream reaches reclassified as passable, provided that they were historically accessible to fish
Riparian protection Forest lands: cost of lost riparian timber production = $U.S. 10,000/acre.
Nonforest lands: cost of acquisition (C/acre) depends on parcel size and current land-use designation: forested (40–80 acre plot) = $U.S. 7080; forested (>80/acre plot) = $U.S. 2856; open space = $U.S. 10,730; agriculture (min 20 acre plot) = $U.S. 6820; rural (< 5 acre plot) = $U.S. 16,997; rural (5–l10 acre plot) = $U.S. 14,456; rural (10–20 acre plot) = $U.S. 11,064; rural (min 20 acre plot) = $U.S. 7966; urban residential = $U.S. 40,344; urban commercial = $U.S. 39,199
Note: Riparian areas were protected to 60 m, however the costs were only calculated for the fraction of the riparian area not currently protected by county, state, or federal riparian ordinances.
Riparian functions and seral stage ↑ by one level when possible to improve, and riparian land cover was reclassified to 20-yr forested. This reduced the amount of sediment and hydrologic runoff entering the reach.
Riparian planting Riparian planting only occurred on areas in which costs were not prohibitive. These included reaches for which > = 35% of the area within 20 m of the channel was < 5% hillslope and > = 50% of the area within 20 m of the channel was not in bare ground, shrubs, or short grass. The cost for riparian planting was estimated as C/acre = $U.S. 15,000 (slope < 0.05). Riparian functions and seral stage ↑ to the best possible level, and riparian land cover was re-classified to 20-yr forested. This reduced the amount of sediment and hydrologic runoff entering the reach.
In-stream restoration C/km = $78,593 Improved spawner capacity in reach by adjusting input variables.
Small streams (BFW ≤ 25 m): redds/km ↑ to 90th percentile of estimated current values
Large streams (BFW > 25 m): spawnable area ↑ by 32%
Floodplain restoration C/ stream km = $U.S. 155,507 Increased length of reach by 39.4% to represent inclusion of historical side channels, as determined from aerial photographs. Habitat conditions were inherited from existing reach, and may have been modified by other actions. An outline of the floodplain for the Lewis River watershed (WDFW 2003) was used to identify segments appropriate for side channel restoration unless specifically identified in the landscape and expert strategies. All mainstem North Fork, East Fork, and Upper North Fork segments within the floodplain boundaries were considered, as well as tributaries that were within the extent of the floodplain.
Road decommissioning C/road km = $U.S. 12,427 Reduced length of existing roads by 95% in areas draining to reach; thereby reducing sediment input
Road repair C/road km = $U.S. 6214 Reduced length of existing roads by 50% in areas draining to reach; thereby reducing sediment input