Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the development path in Makanya catchment. The highlighted line symbolizes Makanya’s development path over the past century. The other lines symbolize alternative pathways that may have been possible. Social, political, economic, and environmental events and processes shape the development trajectories of social–ecological systems, determining which path will be followed and when a system will change trajectory. Some examples of important events that have shaped Makanya’s development are shown in the boxes. Black arrows symbolize points in time when the development has changed its course, gray arrows symbolize a continuation of existing pathway, and white arrows symbolize alternative pathways that may have been possible but were not followed. Over the past decade(s), a number of dramatic changes have been taking place in Makanya, raising questions about the future development trajectory in the catchment, as indicated by the arrows pointing toward year 2030.