Table 1. Ecological and social settings and goals of five community-based forestry groups in the western USA.

Alliance of Forest Harvesters and Workers (AFHW) Jobs and Biodiversity Coalition
(JBC)
Public Lands Partnership
(PLP)

Wallowa Resources
(WR)
Watershed Research and Training Center
(WRTC)>
Ecological setting Northwestern mixed conifer forests to California mixed conifer to oak savanna Southwestern ponderosa pine forests Western conifer forests; piñon–juniper woodlands; sagebrush–grassland rangelands Western conifer forests; riparian habitat; Palouse prairie rangelands California mixed-conifer forests, with some Ponderosa pine, oak savannas, and early successional shrublands
Ecological threats Invasive non-native species, altered fire regimes, degradation Altered fire regimes, poor logging practices Altered fire regimes, non-native invasive species, habitat loss and fragmentation, erosion Altered fire and flood regimes, non-native invasive species, habitat loss and degradation, fragmentation. Habitat degradation, altered fire regimes, history of poor logging practices
Ecological goals ● Reduce risk of catastrophic fire
● Restore the link between livelihoods and the forest
● Resource (mushroom, basket material) protection
● Reduce herbicide use
● Achieve historic ponderosa pine forest structure and function through restoration rather than “standard” fuel reduction
● Create wildlife habitat
● Enhance and maintain diverse, healthy and viable environments
● Restore the link between livelihoods and the land
● Understand and maintain natural variation
● Address causes as well as symptoms of degradation
● Use adaptive management
● Restore the link between livelihoods and the forest
● Reduce risk of catastrophic fire
● Wildlife habitat enhancement
● Restore the link between livelihoods and the forest
● Use adaptive management
Social setting Culturally diverse, underserved community. Distrust among harvester groups and between harvesters and agencies. Invisible and undervalued workers. Low socioeconomic levels, job loss due to loss of timber on federal lands and mine closures. Anglo, Hispano, Mexican-American, and Native American. Rapid demographic change and growth, with increase in retirees, amenity residents, tourism and exurban development. Decline in economic viability of land-based livelihoods. Growing Hispanic population. Community in transition due to changing forest policy, timber industry restructuring, and demographic change. Increasing poverty. Declining institutional capacity. Primarily Anglo. Community in transition due to changing forest policy, timber industry restructuring, and demographic change. Increasing poverty. Cultural conflict over land and resource use. Declining institutional capacity. Primarily Anglo.
Social Goals ● Social justice
● Pay scale that acknowledges skill and work
● Training
● Build trust and support from environmental organizations and U.S. Forest Service for forest restoration prescriptions
● Create jobs from small-diameter wood utilization
● Reduce conflict
● Facilitate constructive dialog about public land management
● Participate in public land management decision making
● Increase awareness of interdependence of local economies and landscapes
● Increase civic engagement and social learning
● Build trust and support in community and U.S. Forest Service for forest restoration prescriptions.
● Build trust and reduce conflict about management.
● Training, education, and outreach.
● Build contractor capacity and create jobs
● Civic science and social learning.
● Address conflict
● Build relationships among organizations and agencies
● Build contractor capacity
● Support traditional resource-based economy
● Civic science and social learning