Table 1. Overview of the ecological and social settings and objectives of the seven community-based forestry groups studied.

Organization Ecological setting Ecological threats Ecological goals Social setting Social goals
 
AFHW Northwestern mixed conifer forests to California mixed conifer to oak savanna Invasive non-native species

Altered fire regimes

Degradation
Reduce risk of catastrophic fire

Restore the link between livelihoods and the forest

Protect resources (mushrooms, basket material)

Reduce herbicide use
Culturally diverse, underserved community

Distrust among harvester groups and between harvesters and agencies

Invisible and undervalued workers
Social justice

Pay scale that acknowledges skill and work

Training
 
FSC Southern pine and hardwood forests and associated pasture and farmland Land conversion

Habitat loss and fragmentation

Poor logging and reforestation practices
Reduce land conversion

Promote forest stewardship
Underserved community

Institutionalized racism

State agency focus on larger land owners

Regulations disadvantage small farmers

Distrust

Land retention difficulties for black families

Disconnect from land
Promote hands-on learning

Network building

Advocacy
Outreach

Build ties to land
 
JBC Southwestern ponderosa pine forests Altered fire regimes

Poor logging practices
Achieve historic ponderosa pine forest structure and function through restoration rather than “standard” fuel reduction

Create wildlife habitat
Low socioeconomic levels

Job loss because of loss of timber on federal lands and mine closures

Anglo, Hispanic, Mexican-American, and Native American
Build trust and support from environmental organizations and U.S. Forest Service for forest restoration prescriptions

Create jobs that use small-diameter wood

Reduce conflict
 
PLP Western conifer forests

Piñon–juniper woodlands

Sagebrush–grassland rangelands
Altered fire regimes

Non-native invasive species

Habitat loss and fragmentation

Erosion
Enhance and maintain diverse, healthy, and viable environments

Restore the link between livelihoods and the land
Rapid demographic change and growth, with increase in retirees, amenity residents, tourism, and exurban development

Decline in economic viability of land-based livelihoods

Growing Hispanic population
Facilitate constructive dialogue about public land management

Participate in public land management decision making

Increase awareness of interdependence of local economies and landscapes

Increase civic engagement and social learning
 
WR Western conifer forests

Riparian habitat

Palouse prairie rangelands
Altered fire and flood regimes

Non-native invasive species

Habitat loss and degradation

Fragmentation.
Understand and maintain natural variation

Address causes as well as symptoms of degradation

Use adaptive management

Restore the link between livelihoods and the forest
Community in transition because of changing forest policy, timber industry restructuring, and demographic change

Increasing poverty

Declining institutional capacity

Primarily Anglo
Build trust and support in community and U.S. Forest Service for forest restoration prescriptions

Build trust and reduce conflict about management

Training, education, and outreach

Build contractor capacity and create jobs
 
WRTC California mixed conifer forests, with some Ponderosa pine

Oak savannas and early successional shrublands
Habitat degradation

Altered fire regimes

History of poor logging practices
Reduce risk of catastrophic fire

Restore the link between livelihoods and the forest

Protect resources (mushrooms, basket material)

Reduce herbicide use
Community in transition because of changing forest policy, timber industry restructuring, and demographic change

Increasing poverty

Cultural conflict over land and resource use

Declining institutional capacity

Primarily Anglo
Address conflict

Build relationships among organizations and agencies

Build contractor capacity

Support traditional resource-based economy

Civic science and social learning
 
VFF Northeast hardwood forests Habitat fragmentation Reduce risk of catastrophic fire

Enhance wildlife habitat

Restore the link between livelihoods and the forest

Use adaptive management

Prevent fragmentation

Promote good stewardship

Understand the forest
Demographic change

Turnover in forest land ownership

Fewer “working forests” because of economics but also changing values of landowners

Disconnect from land
Improve stewardship of family forests

Build ecological knowledge

Identify new VFF participants

Create community
AFWH – Alliance of Forest Workers and Harvesters
FSC – Federation of Southern Cooperatives Forest Legacy Program
JBC – Jobs and Biodiversity Coalition
PLP – Public Lands Partnership
WR – Wallowa Resources
WRTC – Watershed Research and Training Center
VFF – Vermont Family Forests