Table 7. Need for improved monitoring and prediction and improvement of measures for coping with floods and droughts in six of the seven basins studied. The Nile, which runs through 10 countries, was not included because of insufficient data.

Table 7A. Improved monitoring and prediction and improvement of measures for coping with floods needed.
River basin Improved monitoring and prediction of flood and drought risk          Structural measures for flood control Nonstructural measures for flood control Social measures for flood control
Amudarya    
Improved monitoring
Better prediction of extreme events
Updating and maintenance Increase of water storage in wetlands in lower reach for flood and drought mitigation Improved warning systems
Better public awareness and preparedness
Functional insurance

Elbe Better prediction of extreme events under climate change with uncertainty ranges Maintenance and updating Increasing natural water retention and retardation in catchments Improved awareness
Improved preparedness

Guadiana Quantitative and qualitative monitoring of aquifer bodies Needed only for small creeks where flash floods may take place Needed in regard to land-use patterns in some areas of the middle and lower basin Needed only in areas of small creeks where flash floods may take place

Orange Improved monitoring and prediction of extreme events, particularly drought prediction because of marginal agriculture Potential for dam in lower Orange River Improved land-use schemes
A general need for improvement of land management, including wetland rehabilitation
Improved warning systems
Better awareness and preparedness
Improved insurance schemes

Rhine Better low flow and drought prediction Maintenance and updating, which are sometimes complicated by conflicting interests Creation of more room for water
Spatial planning
Raising awareness
Updating of flood emergency plan

Tisza Improved monitoring and prediction of extreme events New reservoirs and polders as set forth in the Vásárhelyi Plan Spatial river basin planning
Increased water storage
Distribution management
Integration of local population and farmers
Improved information systems
Hazard awareness and preparedness
Insurance packages

Table 7B. Improvement of measures for coping with droughts needed.
River basin
Supply-side measures
Demand-side measures
Amudarya Increase in water storage
Improved water supply management
Improvement of interstate cooperation
Economic, legal, and technical water-saving measures
Increase in water-use efficiency
Changes in cropping patterns

Elbe Improved management in view of higher frequency of droughts Optimization of water allocation schemes in case of droughts
Changes in crop rotations
Introduction of new crop varieties

Guadiana Maintenance of two large reservoirs Control of illegal groundwater extraction
Introduction of water-efficient crops
Improved and more efficient irrigation methods
Water pricing
Exchange of groundwater rights

Orange Increasing storage potential for surface water to compensate for variability in rainfall

Improved irrigation practices
Improved control of groundwater extraction


Rhine Enhanced drinking water supply by surface water

Setting priorities for water use in low-flow and drought periods
Incorporating the expected effects of climate change in water management
More efficient use of water for irrigation

Tisza Improved storage of spring flood water and its distribution during growing season
Reactivation of fok-channel system and river bolsons under discussion
Setting priorities for water use during droughts
More efficient use of water for irrigation