Table 4. General characteristics of the seven river basins examined in this study.

River basin (continent) Countries sharing drainage basin Drainage area (km²) Average annual precipitation Flood risk?
Recent flood events
Drought risk?
Recent drought events
Amudarya (Asia) Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Afganistan, Kyrgyz Republic

309 000 200 mm/yr on average (50–800 mm/yr) Yes
2005
Yes
2000, 2001
Elbe (Europe) Germany, Czech Republic, Austria, and Poland

148 268 450–1600 mm/yr Yes
2002
Yes
2003
Guadiana (Europe) Spain, Portugal 66 800 400–600 mm/yr Not very high
1997, 2004

Yes
1991–1995
Nile (Africa) Burundi, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Congo

3 112 369 3–2000 mm/yr Yes
2002
Yes
Annual
Orange (Africa) Lesotho, South Africa, Namibia, Botswana 896 368 25–2000 mm/yr Yes
2000
Yes
1991–1993
Lesotho: 1994–1997

Rhine (Europe) Austria, Germany, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands

185 000 700–1200 mm/yr Yes
1993, 1995, 1999 (Oberrhein)

Yes
2003, 2005, 2006
Tisza (Europe) Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro 157 218 500–1700 mm/yr Yes
2001, 2005
Yes
1998, 2001