Table 2. Institutional arrangements over community and state forests at two sites in Trang, southern Thailand.

Rule (Institution) Tong Tasae CF Tab Jak SF Laem Makham CF To Ban SF
Exclusion of outsiders by village No restrictions on entering the forest No restrictions on entering the forest No restrictions on entering the forest No restrictions on entering the forest
Clearly defined boundary CF boundary is clearly marked with signs No boundary signs CF boundary is clearly marked with signs Only one sign in village declaring that forest belongs to state, but no boundary markers
Management group Mangrove community forest committee (MCFC) No local management group Mangrove community forest committee (MCFC) No local management group
Appropriation Wood cutting allowed only for CFUG members with permission from MCFC Wood cutting is prohibited by state law Wood cutting allowed only for CFUG members with permission from MCFC Wood cutting is prohibited by state law
Monitoring or patrolling Began as scheduled patrols by MCFC. At present, occurs informally on an almost daily basis during other management and harvesting activities (e.g., fishing, honey collection, crab collection) Very infrequently by state officers By four to five CF user-group member households, occurs almost daily (during good weather) when passing by the forest on the way to the open ocean for fishing Very infrequently by state officers
Ability to detain illegal harvesters The MCFC has full power to arrest rule breakers because some MCFC members are “patrol police” officers (combined military and domestic) who work in the village The RFD and local police have the authority to arrest violators of state law The MCFC cannot arrest rule breakers; the RFD and local police have the authority to arrest violators of state law The RFD and local police have the authority to arrest violators of state law
Graduated sanctions Yes: sanction depends on the frequency of violation None: the punishment is applied according to state law Yes: sanction depends on the frequency of violation None: the punishment is applied according to state law
Link with government authority Villagers managed their mangrove forest with close collaboration of patrol police who work at the primary school The RDF manage the mangrove forest without sharing responsibility with local people Villagers managed their mangrove forest with the cooperation of the government authority The RDF manage the mangrove forest without sharing responsibility with local people