Fig. 8. The relationship between total forest cover in 2000 and (A) an index of human poverty and (B) the population density of agricultural workers for 74 districts in Panama. The human poverty index (HPI) is ordered from wealthiest to poorest, with the seven districts in the Ngobe indigenous area being among the poorest. The HPI integrates literacy, poverty (monthly family income < US$100), age structure (proportion < 15 yr old), housing (proportion improvised), and occupation (proportion in agriculture) as first principal component factor scores. Brown downward-pointing triangles indicate districts that were largely deforested before 1947; green upward-pointing triangles indicate districts that were largely forested in 1947.