Fig. 3. The relationship between agricultural land cover and forest cover in 2000 for the 76 districts that compose Panama. Brown downward-pointing triangles indicate districts that were largely deforested before 1947; green upward-pointing triangles indicate districts that were largely forested in 1947. The inset is a histogram of the areas of districts. Districts that fall on the negatively sloping diagonal line are covered entirely by forest and agriculture. Agricultural land cover includes market-oriented crops and animals, subsistence agriculture, and tree plantations. Forest cover includes all natural vegetation that potentially has a closed tree canopy, including very young secondary forest or rastrojo (< 5 yr old), older secondary and mature terra firme forests, mangrove forests, and other flooded forests dominated largely by cativo (Prioria copaifera) or orey (Campnosperma panamensis). The district of San Miguelito is largely urban and was omitted from all analyses. Open water, tidal flats and low inundated vegetation were excluded.