Fig. 1. Map of the Republic of Panama showing district boundaries, areas forested in 1947, areas largely deforested in 1947, foundation dates of the first towns that have since been occupied continuously, and place names mentioned in the text. Spaniards settled the dry Pacific arc (most of the pale yellow area) in the 16th century. The remainder of the country was settled in the 19th and 20th centuries or remains in old-growth forest.