Table 4. Variation in livelihood strategies and pressures on C. strictum populations and habitat across villages in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

State Village Livelihood Strategies Pressures on C. strictum populations and habitat
Kerala Maancheery Collection of forest products Low human populations but harvesters from other villages come to harvest, therefore tenure system breaking down
Kerala Alakal Wage labor & collection of forest products Medium pressure, many harvesters and local traders close by
Kerala Appankaapu Wage labor & collection of forest products High pressure with many harvesters
Kerala Thandankallu Total dependence on wage labor Low pressure—not traditional harvesters of resin
Tamil Nadu Dhalamukh Wage labor & subsistence agriculture & collection of forest products High pressure: high demand from local Badaga communities. Habitat loss due to expansion of tea estates
Tamil Nadu Semenarai Wage labor & subsistence agriculture & collection of forest products High pressure: high demand from local Badaga communities. Habitat loss due to expansion of tea estates
Tamil Nadu Kavalkombei Wage labor & collection of forest products Low pressure—low human populations and large areas of forest
Tamil Nadu Marikode Subsistence agriculture & wage labor & collection of forest products Low pressure—low human populations and forest lands converted to tea years ago