Table 5. Frequencies of clusters (percentages in parentheses) in terms of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondents.


Socioeconomic/demographic
characteristic

Supportive
of nature conservation

Critical of
nature conservation

Critical of tourism development
Residential area
     Ruka 16 (72.7%) 5 (22.7%) 1 (4.5%)
     Syötekylä 20 (64.5%) 6 (19.4%) 5 (16.1%)
     Northern Kuusamo 25 (46.3%) 23 (42.6%) 6 (11.1%)
     Southern Kuusamo 23 (41.1%) 23 (41.4%) 10 (17.9%)
     Sarajärvi 27 (73.0%) 5 (13.5%) 5 (13.5%)
     Downtown Kuusamo 40 (64.5%) 18 (29.0%) 4 (6.5%)
Age
     20–44 yr 46 (65.7%) 18 (25.7%) 6 (8.6%)
     45–64 yr 71 (59.2%) 31 (25.8%) 18 (15.0%)
     65–90 yr 32 (46.4%) 31 (44.9%) 6 (8.7%)
Level of education
     Higher education 47 (77.0%) 10 (16.4%) 4 (6.6%)
     High school 48 (65.8%) 16 (21.9%) 9 (12.3%)
     Elementary school 53 (43.8%) 51 (42.1%) 17 (14.0%)
Primary occupation
     Entrepreneur 22 (46.8%) 17 (36.2%) 8 (17.0%)
     Employee 58 (66.7%) 23 (26.4%) 6 (6.9%)
     Pensioner 45 (47.4%) 36 (37.9%) 14 (14.7%)
     Other 25 (80.6%) 3 (9.7%) 3 (9.7%)
Indigenousness
     Native 56 (45.9%) 49 (40.2%) 17 (13.9%)
     Returnee 45 (67.2%) 14 (20.9%) 8 (11.9%)
     Newcomer 48 (68.6%) 16 (22.9%) 6 (8.6%)
Frequency of contact with tourists through work
     Frequently 31 (66.0%) 14 (29.8%) 2 (4.3%)
     Infrequently 51 (63.0%) 26 (32.1%) 4 (4.9%)
     Not at all 62 (50.4%) 36 (29.3%) 25 (20.3%)
The effects of nature conservation on household economy
     Disadvantage 11 (24.4%) 25 (55.6%) 9 (20.0%)
     No effect 118 (62.5%) 53 (28.0%) 18 (9.5%)
     Benefit 17 (81.0%) 2 (9.5%) 2 (9.5%)