Table 1. Criteria used to recognize and spatially define 10 social and economic actors, as well as the extent of restricted use and urban areas.


Social and economic group† Subgroup Migration period Technology Scale of land holding (ha)‡
Nonmechanized indigenous agriculture
Lowland indigenous communities before 1952 Nonmechanized 1–5
Yungueño indigenous farmers before 1952 Nonmechanized 10–25
Indigenous Andean colonists 1955–present Nonmechanized and incipient 25–50

Mechanized agriculture
Cruceño farmers before 1952 Mechanized 100–1000
Japanese colonists 1954–1965 Mechanized 250–1000
Mennonite colonists 1956–present Mechanized 100–250
Agro-industrial corporations 1986–present Mechanized > 1000
Cattle ranching
Extensive cattle ranchers after 1492 Native forage 500–10,000
Intensive cattle ranchers 1972–present Cultivated pasture 100–10,000
Forest use and conservation
Forest products sector after 1952 Timber and Brazil nut > 10,000
Restricted use after 1990 Protected areas >100,000
Urban areas after 1952 Commerce and industry

†See Appendices 1 and 2 for an overview and the spatial distribution of each group.
‡Information on the size of land holdings is based on anecdotal information obtained in field surveys conducted by Timothy J. Killeen as part of an unpublished consultancy conducted for the Bolivian government in 2005.