Fig. 1. The food web of 58 species of rangeland grasshoppers in Wyoming. Each node represents a single species or a set of closely related species. The yellow represents grasshoppers, blue represents birds, tan represents mammals, purple represents pathogens, pink represents insects, nematodes, and spiders (parasites, parasitoids, and predators), red represents hyperparasites, and green represents plants. Gray nodes represent non-living material including leaf litter, dung, and dead arthropods. Although the food web is a directed graph, we omit the arrows signifying direction in the figure due to the density of edges. Note that there are loops present in the figure where cannibalism occurs (which is distiguished from necrophagy, represented in the gray nodes). This food web is necessarily incomplete as only links found in primary literature have been included (Peterson 1955, Lavigne and Pfadt 1966, Banfield 1974, Bekoff 1977, Ritchie 1978, LaChapelle et al. 1984, Pierce and Peek 1984, Arjo and Pletscher 1999, Pfadt 2002).