Table 1. Main periods during which military action was used to enforce anti-coca policies (sources: Cardozo et al. 1999, Ortuño 2002, Jackson et al. 2003)


Year(s) Policy instrument Enforcement action
1981 Law 18265
Law 18741
Option of compensation when coca crop forfeited, otherwise forced removal of coca crop when discovered
1986 Operation blast furnace Military strike unit targets localized areas to destabilize local economies based on coca.
1986–1989 Plan Trienial Intense military action to eradicate coca—abandoned after 12 months due to civil unrest.
1988 Law 1008 Legalization of 12 000 ha of coca for cultural purposes—mainly in the Yungas of La Paz. Coca bushes in the remaining areas to be removed within 8 years.
1998–2003 Plan Dignidad Five-year plan to remove all illegal coca—this target was claimed to be met in 2000.