Table 5. The results of the direct effects of leadership in crisis management: standardized path coefficients.

Model A† Model B‡
Independent variable Dependent variable Beta§ SE P Beta§ SE P
External trust Crisis preparedness –0.325 0.461 0.023 –0.297 0.443 0.030
Leadership in dealing with a crisis Crisis preparedness 0.277 0.246 0.011 0.206 0.244 0.056
Internal trust Crisis preparedness 0.033 0.421 0.815 0.096 0.398 0.469
Surprise to crisis management actors Crisis preparedness –0.281 0.530 0.009
Crisis preparedness Attribution of crisis fault to other parties –0.248 0.027 0.021 –0.284 0.029 0.013
Surprise to crisis management actors Attribution of crisis fault to other parties –0.101 0.141 0.385
Crisis preparedness Internal coordination of communications 0.332 0.034 0.022 0.240 0.035 0.104
Internal trust Internal coordination of communications 0.349 0.107 0.019 0.371 0.103 0.011
Leadership in dealing with a crisis Internal coordination of communications 0.265 0.074 0.053 0.223 0.073 0.104
External trust Internal coordination of communications –0.060 0.136 0.733 –0.054 0.130 0.751
Surprise to crisis management actors Internal coordination of communications –0.227 0.160 0.103

†The baseline model.
‡The model in which crisis surprise is controlled.
§Standardized beta coefficient.