Table 2. Measurement items and their reliability.

Variable Item Alpha
Internal trust Level of trust the actors display toward their own group through behavior and deeds
Level of trust the actors display toward their own group through words
0.71
External trust Level of trust the actors display toward others outside their own group through behavior and deeds
Level of trust the actors display toward others outside their own group through words
0.89
Leadership in dealing with a crisis Nature of leadership effect on crisis
Degree of experience of leadership with similar crises
0.71
Crisis preparedness Presence of standard operating procedures (SOPs)
Whether SOPs were used
Effect of SOPs on the crisis
Familiarity with similar crises
Training for crises
Available leadership
0.63
Internal coordination of crisis communications Level of coordination among actors or within the organization in communicating with stakeholders and the media
Attribution of crisis fault to other parties Degree of crisis fault that the actors attribute to parties/groups other than their own
Surprise to crisis management actors Degree of unexpected occurrence of the crisis to the crisis management actors