Table 1. List of cases from the Transboundary Crisis Management Data Bank.

Case type No. Name Perceived threat Crisis duration Level of surprise Uncertainty of crisis definition
Environmental 26 1988 epidemic among harbor seals Medium Long High Medium
28 Baia Mare disaster Medium Long High Low
21 Cryptosporidium outbreak Medium Short High Medium
9 Exxon Valdez High Short Medium Medium
31 Greece EU case Medium Long Medium Low
32 Japan and the MOX fuel falsification Low Long Medium Medium
43 Love Canal Medium Medium Medium Medium
115 The U.S. BSE crisis Medium Long Low Medium
20 Yellowstone forest fire High Medium Low Medium
Fiscal 108 1975 New York City financial crisis High Long Medium Medium
7 1997 Korean financial crisis Medium Long High Medium
3 Albanian pyramid scheme High Long Medium Medium
15 Daewoo Group financial crisis High Medium Low Low
53 Estonia economic overheating 1997 Medium Long Medium Medium
48 Latvia Banka Baltija Medium Medium High Medium
105 Long-term capital and the Federal Reserve High Long High Medium
107 Thailand and currency crisis of 1997 High Long Medium Medium
104 The collapse of Arthur Andersen Medium Long Medium Medium
109 The collapse of WorldCom Medium Medium Medium Medium
10 The Enron collapse Low Long High
5 The Hanbo scandal High Medium Medium Low
6 Y2K in Korea High Long Medium High
Legal 46 Biker wars in Scandinavia 1994–1997 Medium Long High Low
54 Estonia Kostivere arms robbery 1997 Medium Long Medium Medium
50 Estonia refugees 1994–1995 High Long Low Low
4 Riots in Malegaon High Medium Medium Low
24 The federal raid on Ruby Ridge Medium Long Low Low
Military 29 Bhopal (Chaudhary) High Short High Medium
51 Estonia peacekeepers 1997 Medium Short High Low
12 Gulf War crisis Medium Long High Low
44 NATO Kosovo crisis High Long Low Medium
111 Ranger school deaths 1995 Medium Short Medium Low
14 Sino-U.S. plane crash incident Medium Short High Low
22 Somalia (Seitz) Medium Long Medium Medium
121 The attack on Pearl Harbor High Short Medium Medium
18 U.S. intervention in Somalia (Averil) Medium Long Medium Medium
120 U.S. Navy out of Vieques Medium Long Medium Low
Natural disaster 37 Earthquake in Gujarat, India High Medium High Low
40 Flash floods in Sirsa, India Medium Medium Medium Medium
34 Labor Day storm Medium Short High Low
52 Latvia spring flood 1998 Medium Medium Low Medium
58 M.S. Estonia ferry disaster High Short High Medium
45 Red River floods 1997 Medium Long Low Medium
62 Slovenia earthquake 1998 Medium Medium High Low
Political 25 1981 air traffic controllers strike High Long Low Low
129 Armed conflict in Macedonia 2001 High Medium Medium Medium
137 Assassination attempt on President Reagan High Short High Medium
114 Bay of Pigs High Medium Low
116 Benin and the slave ship crisis High Long Medium Medium
47 Columbine school shooting (Lamaranna) High Long High Medium
30 Cuban missile crisis High Short High Low
113 D.C. anthrax situation High Short High High
112 D.C. sniper High Medium High High
8 Disaster at Waco High Long Medium Medium
38 Election bombing in Andhra Pradesh, India Medium Short High Low
49 Estonia hijacking 1994 Medium Medium Medium Low
55 Estonia referendum 1993 High Medium Medium Medium
36 Ethnic violence in Assam, India Medium Long Low Medium
35 FAA and September 11 High Medium High Medium
11 Fall of President Fujimori High Medium High Medium
19 India Pakistan Brinkmanship crisis High Long High Low
13 Iran hostage crisis and the Carter Administration High Long Medium Medium
27 Korean cargo truckers boycott Medium Long Medium Medium
56 Latvia Russian crisis 1998 Medium Medium Medium Medium
57 Latvia Russian Securities Medium Medium Medium Medium
42 Lima hostage drama High Medium High Low
110 Madrid bombing 11 March 2004 Medium Short High Low
33 Nuclear waste site crisis Low Medium Medium Low
106 Pan Am 103 and Syracuse University Medium Medium High High
77 Pastrana’s peace process High Medium Low Medium
59 President Bush’s rejection of the Kyoto Protocol Medium Medium Low Low
60 Slovenia independence High Short Low Medium
61 Slovenia Kosovo crisis Medium Medium Low Medium
17 Ukrainian border crisis Medium Medium Medium Medium
118 U.S. Military and the Mayaguez incident High Short Medium Low
117 U.S. troop deployments from Turkey Medium Long Medium Medium
1 YMCA Low Long High Medium
Technological 2 Accident at Three Mile Island (March) High Short High Medium
119 Apollo 13 High Short Medium High
16 Columbia Shuttle disaster Medium Short Medium Medium
41 Hemodialysis deaths in Croatia High Short High Medium
39 Sampoong department store collapse High Medium Medium Medium

†No evaluation available.