Table 1. Actors in Amazonian deforestation

Actor
number
Actor
name
Main origin Principal areas settled Activities
1 Landless migrants (“sem terras”) Northeastern Brazil, especially Maranhão Southern Pará Annual crops, pasture
2 Colonists Northeastern Brazil, especially Maranhão; Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul Transamazon Highway; Rondônia Annual crops (rice, maize, manioc), pasture
3 Ranchers Southern, Center-south, and Center-west regions Northern Mato Grosso, Southern Pará Pasture
4 Drug traffickers/money launderers Rio de Janeiro, other cities Terra do Meio Pasture
5 Goldminers (“garimpeiros”) Maranhão Rondônia, Pará Mining
6 Laborers/debt slaves Maranhão All ranching areas Labor for deforestation
7 Capitalized farmers Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul Mato Grosso, Santarém, eastern Rondônia Soybeans
8 Landgrabbers (“grileiros”) Southern, Center-south, and Center-west regions Terra do Meio, Southern Amazonas, Santarém-Porto de Moz-Ururuá triangle Pasture
9 Sawmill operators/loggers Espirito Santo, Paraná BR-163 Highway, Tailândia (eastern Pará) Logging, building access roads