Table 1. Background information for the inductive comparison and comparability of the cases.


Criterion Tanimbar (Indonesia) Beforona (Madagascar) Mahakam Delta (Indonesia)
Intensity of pressure on the environment Low pressure by long-established local communities Medium to strong pressure by local communities and a few recent migrants Strong pressure by very recent local communities of migrants
Stakeholders Multiple: local population, local government, local technical agencies, local traders, nongovernmental organizations, regional and national government, private companies Multiple: local population, local government, local traders, nongovernmental organizations, regional and national technical agencies, regional and national government Multiple: local population, local government, nongovernmental organizations, private companies, international companies
Knowledge generation Multidisciplinary, multiple tools, multiscale, integrated results Multidisciplinary, multiple tools, multiscale, integrated results Multidisciplinary, multiple tools, multiscale, integrated results
Stakeholder involvement Participation in the design and implementation of research, discussion, and validation of the results Participation in the design and implementation of research, discussion, and validation of the results Participation in the design and implementation of research, discussion, and validation of the results