Table 1. Framework for adaptive management regimes (Raadgever and Mostert 2005)

CRITERIA INDICATORS
A. Actor networks
1. Cross-sectoral co-operation
  • Sectoral governments actively involve other government sectors
  • Cooperation structures include government bodies from different sectors; many contacts generally
  • Conflicts are dealt with constructively, resulting in inclusive agreements to which the parties are committed
2. Cooperation between administrative levels
  • Lower-level governments are involved in decision making by higher-level governments
  • Cooperation structures include government bodies from different hierarchical levels; many contacts generally
  • Conflicts are dealt with constructively, resulting in inclusive agreements to which the parties are committed
3. Cooperation across administrative boundaries
  • Downstream governments are involved in decision making by upstream governments
  • International/ transboundary cooperation structures exist (e.g., river basin commissions); many contacts generally
  • Conflicts are dealt with constructively, resulting in inclusive agreements to which the parties are committed
4. Broad stakeholder participation
  • Legal provisions concerning access to information, participation in decision making (e.g., consultation requirements) and access to courts
  • Cooperation structures include non-governmental stakeholders
  • Non-governmental stakeholders actually contribute to agenda setting, analyzing problems, developing solutions, and taking decisions (“co-production”)
  • Non-governmental stakeholders undertake parts of river basin management themselves, e.g., through water users’ associations
  • Governments take stakeholder input seriously
B. Legal framework
5. Appropriate legal framework
  • A complete and clear legal framework for water management exists (with sufficient detail)
  • Policies have to be reviewed and changed periodically
6. Adaptable legislation
  • Laws and regulations can easily be changed
  • Water (use) rights can easily be changed / are not permanent
C. Policy
7. Long time horizon
  • Solutions for short-term problems do not cause more problems in the (far) future (20 years or more)
  • Preparations are already being made for the (far) future (20 years or more)
8. Flexible measures, keeping options open
  • Measures taken now or proposed for the near future do not limit the range of possible measures that can be taken in the far future and are preferably reversible
9. Experimentation
  • Small-scale policy experiments take place / are financially supported
10. Full consideration of possible measures
  • Several alternatives and scenarios are discussed
  • Alternatives include small- and large-scale and structural and non-structural measures
11. Actual implementation of policies
  • Plans and policies are actually implemented
  • Policies are not dogmatically stuck to when there are good reasons not to implement them, e.g., new and unforeseen circumstances and new insights
D. Information management
12. Joint or participative information production
  • Different government bodies are involved in setting the terms of reference and supervising the search, or are at least consulted (interviews, surveys etc.)
  • The same for non-governmental stakeholders
13. Interdisciplinarity
  • Different disciplines are involved in defining and executing the research: in addition to technical and engineering sciences, also, e.g., ecology and the social sciences
14. Elicitation of mental
models / critical self-reflection about assumptions
  • Researchers allow their research to be challenged by stakeholders and present their own assumptions in as far as they are aware of them
  • Research results are not presented in an authoritative way, but in a facilitative way, to stimulate reflection by stakeholders about what is possible and what it is they want
15. Explicit consideration of uncertainty
  • Uncertainties are not glossed over, but communicated (in final reports, orally)
16. Broad communication
  • Governments exchange information and data with other governments
  • Governments actively disseminate information and data to the public: on the internet, and also by producing leaflets, through the media, etc.
17. Use of information
  • New information is used in public debates (and is not distorted)
  • New information influences policy
As to the issues for which information should be produced, communicated, and used, see under C.
E. Financing
18. Appropriate financing system
  • Sufficient (public and private) resources are available
  • Costs are recovered from the users by public and private financial instruments (charges, prices, insurance, etc.)
  • Decision making and financing under the same control
  • Authorities can take loans and depreciate their assets to facilitate efficient use of resources and replacement of assets