Table 2. Factors supporting transformability in social-ecological systems. Sources – 1: Gunderson et al. 2006, 2: Walker et al. 2006.

Components necessary for adaptability and transformation1 Determinants of transformability2

C1: Development and maintenance of open and flexible epistemic networks;
(Bridges 1 and 3)

C2: Diversity of scientific and social learning types operate in parallel;
(Bridges 2 and 7)

C3: An arena for discourse;
(Bridges 1–3)

C4: Fostering trust through leadership.


D1: Incentives to change vs. not to change, especially subsidies;
(Bridges 6 and 10)
D2: Cross-scale awareness and reactivity, including networking within the social-ecological system and between the system and other systems;
(Bridges 1–3)

D3: A willingness to experiment;
(Bridges 1–3, 7)
D4: Reserves and highly convertible assets in human, natural, and built capital.
(Bridge 8)