Table 5. Programmatic bridges and barriers to integrated interdisciplinary research.

Barriers
 
Codes
 
Bridges
 
Framework
 

No focus to guide teams or research  
Broad and flexible research topic
  Flexibility to choose research
Interdisciplinary projects as "add-ons", primary focus on disciplinary project not associated with team project  
Disciplinary or interdisciplinary focus
  Creative synthesis to make individual disciplinary research part of integrated project
Traditional approaches to framing research  
Depth versus breadth
  Innovation and freedom to create projects that focus on interactions and systems
 
Mentoring
 

Less integration experience or support  
Advisor experience/commitment
  More integrated experience and support
Integrated portions of proposal not supported by disciplinary advisors  
Proposal writing
  Integrated portions of proposal supported by disciplinary advisors
Programmatic/bureaucratic details for two institutions  
CATIE partnership
  Local expertise and contacts
Language, logistics, access are more difficult.  
International research
  Language, logistics, access facilitated by local contacts
 
Training and resources
 

Not experts in all aspects of own discipline or interdisciplinary models/frameworks  
Technical training
  Strong disciplinary background and training in interdisciplinary models/frameworks
Insufficient funding  
Funding
  Sufficient funding
Disciplinary work may take less time  
Time
  Integrated work may take longer
Exams focus narrowly on discipline  
Preliminary Exams
  Exams are comprehensive of interdisciplinary topic