Table 1. Scheme of developments at three levels of scale (macro, meso, micro) that have influenced the system state of water management in The Netherlands over a time period (1975–2004). System states are described in terms of management concept, approach, and priorities (1975, 1985, 1995, 2004). Taken from (van der Brugge et al. 2005).

System state 1975 Events System state 1985 Events System state 1995 Events System state 2004

Macro developments
Supranational: Growing environmental awareness Rio Summit (1992) Johannesburg summit (2002)
National:Economic growth
Limits to growth
Climate Change
Sea level rise
EU Water Framework Directive
Delta Works Calamities (ecological impact) 1st National Environmental Policy Plan
1st Nature Policy Plan
Floods (1993, 1995)
National Environmental Policy Plan 2, 3, 4 (NMP2-4)
Environmental Management Act

Meso developments
Technocratic water management Delta Works
2nd National Policy Memorandum Water Management
Protests against water management approach
Water System management 3rd National Policy Memorandum Water Management (1989)
Reorganization Rijkswaterstaat
Reorganization Regional water boards
Decentralization
Integral water management WB21 (1999)
4th National Policy Memorandum Water Management (1998)
Delta Plan Rivers
Adaptive water management
Engineering approach
Hierarchical organization (top-down)
Engineering approach
Hierarchical organization (top-down)
Room for Water
Democratic organization (Stakeholder participation)
Adaptation and retention
Participatory Policy process
Priorities:
Safety
Agriculture
Priorities:
Safety
Agriculture
Ecology
Priorities:
Safety
Nature development
Agriculture
Spatial Planning
Priorities:
Safety
Spatial Planning
Nature development
Agriculture

Micro developments
Environment Dept. in Delta Dienst
dealing with water (1985)
Restoration projects
Plan Ooievaar (1987)
Living Rivers (1992)
Dealing with the surrounding area (1992)
Room for Rivers (1995)
Tackling flooding (1998)