Table 1. Summary and analysis of New Zealand marine resource interests and property rights arrangements.

Sector Description Property rights dimensions† Property rights bundle‡
Temporal Spatial Quantitative Access Withdrawal Management Exclusion Alienation
Commercial: ITQs§ Individual transferable quotas Held in perpetuity
(5)
Broad regions superseded by other interests
(3)
% of TACC¦
(5)
Implicitly held by owner
(2)
Well defined; held by owner
(5)
Shared between government and owner
(3)
Owner holds limited de-facto rights
(3)
Owner holds very limited de-facto rights; government is primary holder
(1)
Commercial: ACE¶ Annual catch entitlement Valid for 1 yr
(1)
Broad regions superseded by other interests
(3)
Tonnes
(5)
Implicitly held by owner
(2)
Well defined; held by owner
(5)
Not held by owner
(1)
Not held by owner
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Customary Māori: mätaitai Tangata whenua hold exclusive management rights for part of coast Held in perpetuity
(5)
Small areas corresponding to traditional boundaries
(5)
Not explicitly defined
(2)
Held by tangata whenua
(5)
Held by tangata whenua
(5)
Held by tangata whenua
(5)
Held by tangata whenua
(5)
Not defined; implicitly held by government, with varying perceptions of Māori rights
(1)
Customary Māori: taiäpure Iwi/hapu have great but not exclusive say in management; commercial fishing allowed Held in perpetuity
(5)
Small areas corresponding to traditional boundaries
(5)
Not explicitly defined
(2)
Held by general public
(3)
Held by customary, recreational, and commercial fishers
(2)
Shared between iwi/hapu and government
(3)
Held by government
(0)
Not defined; implicitly held by government, with varying perceptions of Māori rights
(1)
Customary Māori: Kaimoana customary fishing Individuals or groups receive permission to catch amounts beyond normal amateur catch for traditional celebrations Held in perpetuity
(5)
Small areas corresponding to traditional boundaries
(5)
Well defined individually; poor collective definition
(3)
Same as recreational fishers
(3)
Rights enhanced over those held by recreational fishers
(3)
Distribution of catch right held by tangata whenua; most other rights held by government
(2)
Held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Recreational fishing Strong social tradition; poorly enforced individual catch limits Presumed held in perpetuity
(3)
Not defined; implicitly anywhere that is not explicitly forbidden
(2)
Individual limits; poorly defined collectively
(2)
Implicitly held by recreational fishers
(2)
Explicilty held by individual fishers; poorly defined collectively
(3)
Held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Aquaculture Local councils define AMAs# and issue renewable resource consents Valid for up to 35 years
(4)
Well defined as a sector and for individual farms
(5)
Poorly defined right to collect spat
(2)
Held by permit holders
(5)
Held by permit holder; often poorly defined
(3)
Held by government
(0)
Extremely limited; held by permit holder
(1)
Held by government
(0)
Conservation Marine reserves Held in perpetuity
(5)
Well-defined small areas
(5)
No-take zone, withdrawal set to zero
(0)
Held by general public
(1)
No withdrawal, thus held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Marine tourism Nonextractive recreational use of marine resources Presumed held in perpetuity
(3)
Implicit access to places not explicitly forbidden; some restrictions on tour operators
(2)
Not applicable
(0)
Held by general public
(1)
Not applicable
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Held by government
(0)
Offshore resource extraction Natural gas drilling by extraction permit holders Varies by permit
(4)
Permits granted for specific areas
(5)
Unlimited extraction allowed
(5)
Held by permit holder
(5)
Held by permit holder
(5)
Shared by permit holder and government
(3)
Held by permit holder
(5)
Held by government
(0)
Submarine cables and pipelines Protected zone for submarine cables and pipelines Presumed held in perpetuity
(3)
Well-defined small areas, e.g., 4 m around cable
(5)
Not applicable
(0)
Held by general public
(1)
Not applicable, but impinges on others’ rights
(0)
Shared by permit holder and government
(3)
Held by permit holder
(5)
Held by government
(0)
Government Holds rights in trust for public unless defined otherwise Held in perpetuity unless delegated
(5)
200-mile EEZ†† unless delegated
(5)
All unless delegated
(5)
Held by government; often delegated
(5)
Held by government; usually delegated to varying degrees
(5)
Held by government; often significant portions shared
(5)
Held by government; occasionally delegated
(5)
Held by government
(5)

†The quality of property rights dimensions was assessed on a scale of zero to five, indicated in parentheses.
‡The strength of property rights bundle elements was assessed on a scale of zero to five, indicated in parentheses.
§Individual transferable quotas.
¦Total allowable commerical catch.
¶Annual catch entitlements.
#Aquaculture management areas.
††Exclusive economic zone.