Table 2. A broad classification of types of old-growth, frequent-fire forests considered in this article

Time period Type  Description
Past 1. Presettlement forests  Considered to have ended with the year of the last surface fire
Present 2. Old growth  Unharvested, dominated by old trees, but typically affected by fire exclusion and livestock
Present 3. Developing old growth  Forests managed to attain some or many old-growth characteristics in the future
Future 4. Old growth  Type 2 still dominated by old trees that may have been managed to varying degrees
Future 5. Emergent old growth  Type 3 that has attained some or many old-growth characteristics