Table 1. Examples of pre-Euro-American settlement fire frequencies in frequent-fire conifer forests of the western United States

Location Major species† MFI (yrs.)‡ Period  Reference
Guadalupe Mountains, TX pipo, mc 5 1700–1900  Swetnam and Baisan 1996
San Juan National Forest, CO pipo, quga 7–13 1679–1880  Grissino-Mayer et al. 2004
El Malpais National Monument, NM pipo 5–17 1700–1900  Swetnam and Baisan 1996
Rincon Mountains, AZ pipo, quga 6–10 1657–1893  Baisan and Swetnam 1990
Camp Navajo, AZ pipo, quga 4 1637–1883  Fulé et al. 1997
Zion National Park, UT pipo, quga 4–7 pre-1881  Madany and West 1983
Carson Range, NV pije, abco 2 1650–1850  Taylor and Beaty 2005
Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Park, CA§ pipo, mc 4 pre-1860  Caprio and Lineback 2002
Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Park, CA abco, mc 10 pre-1860  Caprio and Lineback 2002
Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Park, CA segi 10 pre-1860  Caprio and Lineback 2002
Cascade Range, CA abco, pije 4 1652–1918  Bekker and Taylor 2001
Cascade Range, CA abco, pila 9 1658–1904  Bekker and Taylor 2001
Cascade Range, CA abma, abco 10 1694–1899  Bekker and Taylor 2001
Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA pije, abma 9 1745–1889  Stephens 2001
Clearwater River drainage, ID psme 15 ––  Smith and Fischer 1997
Pattee Canyon, MT pipo, laoc 7 1557–1918  Habeck 1990
Eastern WA§ psme 6–18 ––  Agee 2003
Cascade Range, WA pipo, psme 7 1700–1860  Everett et al. 2000
† pipo = Pinus ponderosa, mc = mixed conifer, quga = Quercus gambelii, pije = Pinus jeffreyi, abco = Abies concolor, segi = Sequoia giganteum, pila = Pinus lambertiana, abma = Abies magnifica, laoc = Larix occidentalis, psme = Pseudotsuga menziesii.
‡ Mean fire return interval for all fire-scar samples.
§ These studies represent syntheses of previous work in these regions.